T Cell- B cell Memory
Paper that came out of Israel which showed that natural antibodies fall about 5% or 10 percent a month, while vaccine-induced immunity falls more than 40% per month.”
- One of the largest studies to date, published in Science in February 2021, found that although antibodies declined over eight months, memory B cells increased over time, and the half-life of memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells suggests a steady presence.
- In a study by New York University published May 3, the authors studied the contrast between vaccine immunity and immunity from prior infection as it relates to stimulating the innate T-cell immunity — which is more durable than adaptive immunity through antibodies alone.
The authors concluded:
“In COVID-19 patients, immune responses were characterized by a highly augmented interferon response which was largely absent in vaccine recipients. Increased interferon signaling likely contributed to the observed dramatic upregulation of cytotoxic genes in the peripheral T cells and innate-like lymphocytes in patients but not in immunized subjects.”
The study further noted:
“Analysis of B and T cell receptor repertoires revealed that while the majority of clonal B and T cells in COVID-19 patients were effector cells, in vaccine recipients, clonally expanded cells were primarily circulating memory cells.”
This means natural immunity conveys much more innate immunity, while the vaccine mainly stimulates adaptive immunity — as effector cells trigger an innate response that is quicker and more durable, whereas memory response requires an adaptive mode that is slower to respond.
3. According to a longitudinal analysis published July 14 in Cell Medicine, most recovered COVID patients produced durable antibodies, memory B cells and durable polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells — which target multiple parts of the virus.
“Taken together, these results suggest broad and effective immunity may persist long-term in recovered COVID-19 patients,” the authors said.
Relative Risk v/s Absolute Risk
In a city of 10 lakh people it was reported that cases of Murder has increased by 100%, which primafacie is very alarming. So 100% here is relative risk.
When enquired about the number of murders, it was reported that last year there was 1 murder and this year 2 murder, this in percentage increase is 0.000001%. This is absolute risk.
ABSOLUTE RISK EFFICACY V/S RELATIVE RISK EFFICACY OF COVID-19 VACCINES IN INDIA
- COVISHIELD –
5807 people were given Covishield vaccine and out of which 30 got confirmed covid – 30/5807*100 = 0.5%, so 0.5% people got covid after vaccination.
5829 people were given Placebo and out of which 101 got confirmed covid – 101/5829*100 = 1.7%, so 1.7% people got covid in the placebo group. (In this group, earlier approved vaccines were used and not pure placebos)
Absolute risk efficacy — 1.7%-0.5% = 1.2%
Relative risk efficacy — 100 – (30/101*100) = 70.4%
The link to this study is here https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2932661-1
2. COVAXIN –
8471 people were given Covaxin vaccine and out of which 24 got confirmed covid – 24/8471*100 = 0.28%, so 0.28% people got covid after vaccination.
8502 people were given Placebo and out of which 106 got confirmed covid – 106/8502*100 = 1.25%, so 1.25% people got covid in the placebo group. (In this group earlier approved vaccines were used and not pure placebos)
Absolute risk efficacy — 1.25%-0.28% = 0.97%
Relative risk efficacy — 100 – (24/106*100) = 77.8%
The link to this study is here – https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.30.21259439v1.full
Conclusion – By taking covid-19 vaccines, your chances of not getting Covid-19 reduces by only 1%.